Cairo is the capital of Egypt and the largest city in the Arab world and Africa. Its metropolitan area is the 16th largest in the world. Located near the Nile Delta, it was founded in 969 AD. Nicknamed "the city of a thousand minarets" for its preponderance of Islamic architecture, Cairo has long been a centre of the region's political and cultural life. Cairo was founded by the Fatimid dynasty in the 10th century AD, but the land composing the present-day city was the site of national capitals whose remnants remain visible in parts of Old Cairo. Cairo is also associated with Ancient Egypt as it is close to the ancient cities of Memphis, Giza and Fustat which are near the Great Sphinx and the pyramids of Giza.
The area around present-day Cairo, especially Memphis, had long been a focal point of Ancient Egypt due to its strategic location just upstream from the Nile Delta. However, the origins of the modern city is generally traced back to a series of settlements in the first millennium. Around the turn of the 4th century, as Memphis was continuing to decline in importance, the Romans established a fortress town along the east bank of the Nile. This fortress, known as Babylon, remains the oldest structure in the city. It is also situated at the nucleus of the Coptic Orthodox community, which separated from the Roman and Byzantine church in the late 4th century. Many of Cairo's oldest Coptic churches, including the Hanging Church, are located along the fortress walls in a section of the city known as Coptic Cairo.
How to Reach
Cairo has an extensive road network, rail system, subway system, and maritime services. Road transport is facilitated by personal vehicles, taxi cabs, privately owned public buses, and Cairo microbuses. Cairo, specifically Ramses Square, is the centre of almost the entire Egyptian transportation network.
Pyramids of Giza
The subway system, officially called "Metro", is a fast and efficient way of getting around Cairo. Metro network covers Helwan and other suburbs. It can get very crowded during rush hour. Two train cars (the fourth and fifth ones) are reserved for women only, although women may ride in any car they want.
Places to visit
Memphis, city and capital of ancient Egypt and an important centre during much of Egyptian history. Memphis is located south of the Nile River delta, on the west bank of the river, and about 15 miles (24 km) south of modern Cairo. Closely associated with the ancient citys site are the cemeteries, or necropolises, of Memphis, where the famous pyramids of Egypt are located. From north to south the main pyramid fields are: Abu Ruwaysh, Giza, Zawiyat al-?Aryan, Abu ?ir, ?aqqarah, and Dahshur. The Memphis archaeological zone was designated a UNESCO World Heritage site in 1979.
One of the most famous structures on the list of the seven wonders of the ancient world is The Great Pyramid of Giza. What makes this structure the most recognizable on the list? Not only is this pyramid the oldest structure on the list, but it is the only structure that still remains. The Great Pyramid of Giza was the tallest man made structure in the world for 3800 years which is not only a testament to its durability but to its mark as one of the most remarkable structures built. It is no wonder that The Great Pyramid of Giza was placed on the list of the seven wonders of the ancient world.
Pyramids of Sakkara
Saqqara Egyptian Arabic pronunciation: also spelled Sakkara or Saccara in English is a vast, ancient burial ground in Egypt, serving as the necropolis for the Ancient Egyptian capital, Memphis. Saqqara features numerous pyramids, including the world famous Step pyramid of Djoser, sometimes referred to as the Step Tomb due to its rectangular base, as well as a number of mastabas (Arabic word meaning 'bench'). Located some 30 km (19 mi) south of modern-day Cairo, Saqqara covers an area of around 7 by 1.5 km
Pyramids of Dahshour
Dahshur is a royal necropolis located in the desert on the west bank of the Nile approximately 40 kilometres south of Cairo. It is known chiefly for several pyramids, two of which are among the oldest, largest and best preserved in Egypt, built from 2613-2589 BCE.
Pyramids of Abu sir :
Abusir , the House or Temple of Osiris is the name given to an Egyptian archaeological locality specifically, an extensive necropolis of the Old Kingdom period, together with later additions in the vicinity of the modern capital Cairo. The name is also that of a neighbouring village in the Nile Valley, whence the site takes its name. Abusir is located several kilometres north of Saqqara and, like it, served as one of the main elite cemeteries for the ancient Egyptian capital city of Memphis. Several other villages in northern and southern Egypt are named Abusir or Busiri.
Pyramids of eleisht
This pyramid is built by Amenmehat I ? who changed the governing system of Egypt to be more centralized, ?Amenmehat I changed the capital of Egypt from Thebes where his ancestors ruled in ?the South and established a new city that was situated somewhere to the North to be ?in the middle between Upper Egypt in the South and Lower Egypt in the North. ?
Pyramids of Hawara
Due to the fact that all the rulers of Egypt who belonged to the 12th dynasty have ?constructed pyramids and funerary structures near the Oasis of El Fayoum, most ?probably the new capital of Amenmehat I was also located near that region.
Hawara is an archaeological site of Ancient Egypt, south of the site of Crocodilopolis (Arsinoe) at the entrance to the depression of the Fayyum oasis. The first excavations at the site were made by Karl Lepsius, in 1843. William Flinders Petrie excavated at Hawara, in 1888, finding papyri of the 1st and 2nd centuries CE, and, north of the pyramid, a vast necropolis where he found 146 portraits on coffins dating to the Roman period, famous as being among the very few surviving examples of painted portraits from Classical Antiquity, the "Fayoum portraits" illustrated in Roman history textbooks.
Pyamrids of Abu Rawash
Abu Rawash 8 km to the North of Giza, is the site of Egypt's most northerly pyramid, also known as the lost pyramid the mostly ruined Pyramid of Djedefre, the son and successor of Khufu. Originally, it was thought that this pyramid had never been completed, but the current archaelogicical consensus is that not only was it completed, but that it was built about the same size as the Pyramid of Menkaure the third largest of the Giza pyramids.
Pyramids of EL Lahaoun
Located in the Faiyum, Egypt, el-Lahun or Kahun is the workers' village associated with the pyramid of Senusret II (also spelled Sesostris II). It is located near the modern village of el-Lahun and is often known by that name. Also nearby is the pyramid itself, known as the Pyramid of Lahun.
pyramid of Mazghuna
Mazghuna (also known as Al Mazghunah or Al-Muzghumah), 5 km to the south of Dahshur, is the site of several mudbrick pyramids dating from the 12th Dynasty. The area was explored by Ernest Mackay in 1910, and was excavated by Flinders Petrie in 1911. Amenemhet IV and Sobekneferu have been suggested as the owners of 2 unfinished pyramids at Mazghuna but there is no conclusive evidence of this. The southern pyramid is about 3 miles from Sneferu's bent pyramid. The base was 52.5 meters square but it was never finished. The outer burial chamber contains an inner monolithic burial vault made out of quartzite like the one for Amenemhet III at Hawara. There was a large granite plug ready to slide over the top however it was never used since no one was ever buried there.
The Egyptian Museum
The Museum of Egyptian Antiquities, known commonly as the Egyptian Museum or Museum of Cairo, in Cairo, Egypt, is home to an extensive collection of ancient Egyptian antiquities. It has 120,000 items, with a representative amount on display, the remainder in storerooms.
The Coptic Museum
In 1908, Marcus Simaika Pasha, having obtained the approval of Patriarch Kyrillos V, succeeded in getting the Coptic Museum built on a plot intended for the construction of a church. The Museum was first inaugurated in 1910, then again in 1984 following restoration. It became a State museum in 1931 and its collections bequeathed by family legacies and donations have continued to grow.
The Castle of Saladin
The Saladin Castle, is among the preferred traveller attractions in Cairo, Egypt. Cairo is the capital city of Egypt and, the thirteenth biggest town internationally. About 16,000,000 people live in Cairo and like it not only for its prospering contemporary society but also for its historic importance.